Longquan celadon is traditionally divided into "Ge kiln" and "Di kiln". The saying of "brother and brother" comes from the Ming Dynasty: "Zhang brothers, who were from Longquan County, Chuzhou, Song Dynasty, are good at treating porcelain. Zhangsheng two pottery named zhanglongquan, also known as di Yao. Zhang Shengyi's brother is his brother. " It is impossible to test whether there are two brothers. However, two different Longquan celadon products are illustrated: one is white and the other is black body celadon with open glaze, which is called "Di kiln" or "Longquan kiln".
"Ge kiln" appeared in the middle and late Southern Song Dynasty. Together with the famous Guan, Ru, Ding and Jun, it is called the five famous kilns of Song Dynasty. Its characteristics are "the body is as thin as paper, the glaze is as thick as jade, the glaze is covered with patterns, purple mouth and iron feet, and the body color is gray and black". "Ge kiln" is decorated with magnificent and simple patterns, such as ice crack, crab claw pattern, ox hair pattern, water pattern, roe pattern, meal blood pattern, hundred garbage pieces, etc. in addition, its glaze layer is full, bright and clean, which is matched with the glaze pattern piece, showing more simple and elegant. This kind of products win by modeling, glaze color and glaze opening. Because the opening is difficult to control, the cracks are unintentional and natural, and are created by natural engineering, which is more in line with the natural and simple, antique aesthetic.
"Di kiln" has white glaze, with pink green and plum green as the most color, followed by bean green, known as the giant of folk kilns. The celadon glaze layer of Di kiln is rich and moist, the glaze color is blue and blue, the luster is soft, the crystal is moist, it is better than jadeite jade. Green glaze color, with orange red foot or bare fetus figure, to produce a pleasant visual effect. Since the middle and late Southern Song Dynasty, especially in the Yuan Dynasty, there have been a large number of works using naked fetus. The faces, hands and feet of figures and the clouds, dragons and flowers on the inner bottom of plate utensils are decorated with unique charm.
Modern Longquan celadon faithfully inherits the traditional Chinese artistic style. On the basis of inheriting and imitating the ancients, there are new breakthroughs, such as copper glaze, high temperature black glaze, tiger spot color glaze, he color glaze, tea UN colored glaze, black gold glaze and azure glaze.
At the turn of song and Yuan Dynasties, the celadon firing in the brother kiln of Longquan entered its heyday. With the wisdom and skills of the kiln workers of all ages, celadon was produced here, which was as green as jade, as bright as a mirror, and as loud as a Qing. The aesthetic realm of celadon "gorgeous extreme, return to plain" is in line with the aesthetic thought of Song Dynasty, and objectively promotes the development of celadon in Song Dynasty. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Longquan produced jade like powder blue glaze and plum green glaze, which made the development of Longquan celadon reach the peak, which has been brilliant for hundreds of years. In addition, celadon is loved by porcelain lovers all over the world.
However, in the middle and late Ming Dynasty, with the change of Royal taste, Longquan celadon gradually declined
The Longquan kiln began in the Western Jin Dynasty and took shape in the Northern Song Dynasty,
The technology of porcelain making reached the peak. Plum green and powder blue glaze reached the highest level of celadon glaze color. The Ge kiln and Guan, Ru, Ding, Jun and other kilns in the traditional Longquan kiln were called the five famous kilns of Song Dynasty.
Celadon is famous for its exquisite quality, bright and smooth lines, dignified and simple shape, pure and beautiful color. "Green as jade, as bright as a mirror, sound like a chime," the "flower of porcelain" is worthy of the treasure of porcelain, rare and precious. From the Southern Song Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty, porcelain kilns in Fujian, Guangdong coastal areas and Jiangxi Province fired products similar to Longquan celadon.
Longquan kiln celadon also had a great influence abroad. During the song and Yuan Dynasties, a large number of celadons were exported. Chen Qiaoyi said in the preface to the place names of Longquan County: "from the ports along the southeast coast of China, they went all the way to the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, red sea and East African coast along the coast of the Indian Ocean There is no trace of Longquan celadon everywhere. "Longquan celadon reached its peak in song and Yuan Dynasties. The production scale of Longquan celadon did not decrease in the Ming Dynasty, but its quality declined. It gradually declined in the Qing Dynasty. After the late Qing Dynasty, it stopped firing, and only a few kilns were engaged in antique production.
The historical development of Longquan celadon can be divided into three stages: Five Dynasties to the early Northern Song Dynasty, the late Northern Song Dynasty to the Southern Song Dynasty, and the yuan and Ming Dynasties.
During the period of the Three Kingdoms and the Jin Dynasties, the local people began to make celadon by taking advantage of the local superior natural conditions and absorbing the porcelain making technology and experience of Yue Kiln and Ou kiln. In this period, the celadon works were rough and the scale of kiln industry was not large. However, in the Five Dynasties and the Northern Song Dynasty, in order to bow down to the throne, the rulers of Wu and Yue offered countless "secret color porcelain" to the Central Plains monarchs every year. Such a large number of production makes Yuezhou kiln unable to bear, so under such circumstances, Longquan kiln took the opportunity of its own development by undertaking such a "peaceful" tribute mission. At that time, Longquan kiln industry began to take shape, and the celadon firing technology had reached a certain level. With the introduction of the most advanced production technology of Yue Kiln, a group of excellent porcelain craftsmen settled down in Longquan one after another, and the quality of Longquan kiln products was improved rapidly.
The wares of Longquan kiln in this period were all light blue glazed porcelain, and the fetal bones were mostly gray white and a few were gray black. The tire wall is thin and hard, and the texture is solid and fine. Most of the porcelain workshops in Longquan kiln were built on the foothills of rivers or gullies. The kiln builders built a dragon kiln on the gentle slope of the mountain. The small flat beside the kiln made workshops and houses. The kiln and workshop were connected together, with reasonable layout and convenient operation. There were trees on the mountain and porcelain stone mines nearby, so the raw materials and fuel needed for porcelain production were easy to access. The nearby streams and rivers could not only provide industrial water for the workshop, but also transport the products to the market by water transport tools such as rafts Land. From the Five Dynasties to the middle of Northern Song Dynasty, Longquan became the first kiln in Jiangnan. The "secret color porcelain", which is praised by countless people, is also the beginning of Longquan celadon's magnificent legend.
Southern Song Dynasty
The Southern Song Dynasty can be described as the golden age of Longquan kiln, celadon appeared a new look. After the collapse of the Northern Song Dynasty, a large number of northerners moved to the south, and the political and economic center of the country moved to the south. The famous kilns such as Ru kiln and Ding kiln in the north were destroyed by the war. Ou kiln and Yue Kiln also declined one after another. In the late Southern Song Dynasty, due to the introduction of northern porcelain making technology, Longquan kiln combined with the technology of northern art created the peak in the history of celadon in China.
During this period, a kind of jade like thick glaze porcelain appeared in Longquan kiln, which was divided into black body and white body. In order to solve the financial difficulties and encourage foreign trade, Longquan celadon was exported to many countries by sea and became one of the main export commodities at that time. Japanese ceramic scholar sansomi described this sea route as "the road of ceramics". The demand of foreign trade has led to the emergence of a large number of new porcelain making workshops, and the quality of product firing technology has been continuously improved.
At the end of the Southern Song Dynasty, Longquan kiln entered its heyday. The successful firing of fenqing and meiziqing left a brilliant page in the history of China's porcelain. Fenqing and meiziqing are recognized as the peak of celadon glaze color, which not only means the improvement of Longquan kiln's porcelain making technology, but also contains more abundant aesthetic connotation. Many new shapes of utensils in Longquan kiln of Southern Song Dynasty are inherited from ancient bronzes, such as Zun style bottle and tripod furnace. People can't help but marvel at the exquisite and elegant celadon wares of Longquan kiln in Southern Song Dynasty. They have too many shadows of official kilns. The similarity between Longquan celadon and official ware just shows that it was influenced by the official kiln. Although there is no clear record of the establishment of official kilns in Longquan of the Southern Song Dynasty, there are various signs that the court at that time probably sent technicians and bureaucrats to supervise the production of "tribute ware" in Longquan and other places. In the Southern Song Dynasty, the production of Longquan celadon has reached the peak, and its glaze color pursues a kind of green and Jasper like sentiment and effect. Later, this kind of celadon was introduced into Korea and influenced Korea celadon. Japanese call it anvil celadon, and a large number of imitation. In Europe, Longquan celadon is called seladon. The name has a romantic legend. In the early 17th century, French writer Yufei wrote a famous novel, which was one of the most popular books in France at that time. Later, the novel was changed into a drama, put on the stage, and made a sensation. During the performance, Sheila, a shepherd boy in the play, was wearing a blue coat that was as green as the sea water and as beautiful as the blue sky. Longquan celadon from the Far East, full of mystery, was also a hit art at that time. Many nobles loved it to the extent of fascination. People wanted to give it a name that could best express the passion. It happens that the color of Longquan celadon is similar to the clothes worn by shepherds. Therefore, people give Longquan celadon "sheratong", while Europeans still call Longquan celadon "sheratong".
Yuan and Ming Dynasties
Perhaps the rulers of Yuan Dynasty could not appreciate the delicate art, but porcelain was still an indispensable ornament for aristocratic life. Longquan kiln in Yuan Dynasty was still made by the royal court and nobles. The appearance of Bashi BaWen porcelain in Longquan kiln is a strong proof. The style of Longquan kiln porcelain in Yuan Dynasty is new. In fact, the Mongolian rulers of Yuan Dynasty were not unilaterally assimilated by the Han culture. Mongolian iron riding conquered a dynasty, but also brought the atmosphere and roughness of grassland. In addition, the rulers of the Yuan Dynasty continued to pursue foreign trade policies, so that the production scale of Longquan celadon continued to expand in the Yuan Dynasty, the number of kiln sites and products reached an unprecedented level, the variety of products increased, and exported to foreign countries.
From 1975 to 1977, a shipwreck of the Yuan Dynasty was found in the sea floor of Xin'an in the southwest of South Korea, and more than 10000 pieces of porcelain were salvaged. Among them, more than 9000 pieces of Longquan celadon were found. It can be seen that Longquan celadon played an important role in the foreign trade of the Yuan Dynasty.
In the late Yuan Dynasty, with the aggravation of class and national contradictions, celadon production was seriously affected. At this time, the fetal bone of celadon porcelain gradually became thick and rough. Most of the kilns were not well trimmed after the body was formed, and the glaze layer became thinner, and the glaze color of the utensils turned yellow in blue, and the shape was not as beautiful as before. The Celadon of Longquan kiln in Ming Dynasty was developed on the basis of Yuan Dynasty. The shadow of Yuan Dynasty artifacts can still be seen from the fragments.
During the period from Yongle to Xuande in the Ming Dynasty, Zheng He sailed to the West and overseas trade promoted celadon production. After that, the rise of blue and white porcelain, coupled with the decline of China's maritime trade, became the road of western colonists' invasion. During the Ming Dynasty, the export volume of celadon decreased sharply. Longquan kilns have closed down one after another, and they have changed to use popular celadon, which is not as exquisite as before. However, it is undeniable that there are some excellent products in Longquan kiln of Ming Dynasty. Compared with the official kilns of Jingdezhen in the same period, the coincidence of the design and decoration of the two shows the orthodox identity of this kind of Longquan celadon. Jingdezhen began to imitate Longquan in the Ming Dynasty. Most of its imitations were produced by official kilns, and its Yongle imitations were called "Holly glaze". There are bowls, jars, Gaozu cups, etc. the glaze color is slightly cyan due to the white porcelain body. Most of the imitations of Xuande in Ming Dynasty have blue and white characters of "Da Ming Xuande Nian system". They are mainly pastel blue glaze of Southern Song Dynasty, with glaze inside and outside. Zhengde imitations have thinner glaze, light and tender color, and more bowls. Jiajing imitations, bowls and bottles have bright and bright glaze, thick glaze. After the reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty, the firing of blue glaze was the most successful, including pink green, holly, bean green, etc.
In the Qing Dynasty, there were few places left in Longquan kiln. The product had rough texture and yellow glaze. The splendid celadon flowers of Longquan withered here. However, the Longquan kiln in Chuzhou, Daming, which has been forgotten by history for a long time, has finally been removed from the dust by a variety of coincidences. Longquan celadon originated in the Five Dynasties and prevailed in the Song Dynasty. It is a bright pearl in the history of Chinese porcelain making. After the Song Dynasty moved southward to Hangzhou, Longquan porcelain workers at that time absorbed the excellent tradition of famous porcelain in the past dynasties, and produced magnificent porcelain with exquisite skills, pushing celadon production to a prosperous period. At that time, there were many kilns on both sides of the Oujiang River, and there were fireworks and fireworks. There were more than 200 ancient kiln sites discovered alone.
It is said that in the Song Dynasty, there were two brothers named Zhang in Longquan, Zhejiang Province. Each of them had a kiln to make porcelain. Ge kiln was listed as one of the five famous kilns in Song Dynasty, and di kiln was also known as the giant of ancient kiln in Song Dynasty. Ge kiln is characterized by thick glaze layer and exposed patterns. According to the local chronicles of Chuzhou Prefecture, it is said that the baiji fragments of Ge kiln are "crown Jue at that time". The product of Di kiln is thick and plump, and the glaze is green and soft, just like jade. It represents the normal color of Longquan porcelain, and the most famous one is "meiziqing".
For a long time, Longquan porcelain has been loved by people at home and abroad. So far, there are more than 1300 pieces of ancient Chinese Celadon in Islamabad Museum in Turkey. Famous museums in many countries around the world, such as the Teheran Museum in Iran and the British Museum in London, regard the collected celadon as treasures.
In the late 16th century, when Longquan celadon first arrived in France, interesting Parisians compared the beauty of celadon with the beautiful green robe of Sheraton, the leading character in the famous European drama Estelle the shepherdess, and called it "sheratong". This elegant name has been followed up to now.
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